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Human Factors, Instrumentation & Controls
Improving task performance, system reliability, system and personnel safety, efficiency, and effectiveness are the division's main objectives. Its major areas of interest include task design, procedures, training, instrument and control layout and placement, stress control, anthropometrics, psychological input, and motivation.
2020 ANS Virtual Winter Meeting
November 16–19, 2020
The Standards Committee is responsible for the development and maintenance of voluntary consensus standards that address the design, analysis, and operation of components, systems, and facilities related to the application of nuclear science and technology. Find out What’s New, check out the Standards Store, or Get Involved today!
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Missouri S&T’s nuclear engineering program gains department status
Missouri S&T’s pool-type nuclear reactor. Photo: Sam O’Keefe/Missouri S&T
Sixty years ago, the Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T), then known as the University of Missouri at Rolla, was one of the first U.S. institutions to offer a nuclear engineering degree. Now, decades after it was offered as an option within metallurgical engineering, Missouri S&T’s nuclear program has attained new status as the Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science Department, the university announced on October 20.
Nuclear science is far-reaching in the fabric of modern life. It can help explain the origins of the universe or how x-rays reveal the bones in your body. In fact, nuclear science is at the heart of so many of the technologies that improve our lives, that it’s easy to take for granted how those technologies came to be. But behind every innovation and discovery in the nuclear fields, is a scientist or engineer researching the atomic nucleus and how to use it to improve our lives.
Look around you. Everything you see, including you, is made of the same stuff—elements. Each of those elements has its own unique characteristics, but all elements are made of atoms—the smallest unit of an element that still has the characteristics of the element.
Scientists used to think there was nothing smaller than an atom.
Today, we know the atom is made of smaller particles, and those are made of even smaller particles.
The nucleus is made of protons and neutrons; each has the same mass: 1 amu (atomic mass unit).
Protons and neutrons aren’t exactly alike, though; protons have a positive charge while neutrons don’t have a charge.
Electrons are so small that they have nearly no mass at all. A single neutron has only 1/1836 amu. They are also negatively charged.
Organizing the Elements
All of the known elements are organized on the periodic table of the elements. They are arranged by atomic number, from smallest to largest, and labeled with their element symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass.
Standard Nuclear Notation
To easily communicate information about the elements, scientists use standard nuclear notation.
Nuclear notation is formed by writing an elemental symbol preceded by a subscript indicating its atomic number—the number of protons—and a superscript indicating its mass number—the number of protons and neutrons combined.
For example: Carbon has 6 protons, so it’s atomic number is 6.
Carbon's mass number is 12. How many neutrons does it have?
The mass number of an element is a round number; the atomic mass usually isn't. Atomic mass is an average mass of all of the isotopes of an element. We use the mass number, which is always a round number, to make calculations easier.
Think about clover. Clovers can have three, four, or even more leaves. The four-leaved clovers are rare, but they are still clovers. In a similar way, two atoms of an element can have different numbers of neutrons. Because they still have the same number of protons, though, they are the same element. These “varieties” of the same element are called isotopes.
Learn more about radioactivity
Last modified April 27, 2020, 2:32pm CDT