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The Education, Training & Workforce Development Division provides communication among the academic, industrial, and governmental communities through the exchange of views and information on matters related to education, training and workforce development in nuclear and radiological science, engineering, and technology. Industry leaders, education and training professionals, and interested students work together through Society-sponsored meetings and publications, to enrich their professional development, to educate the general public, and to advance nuclear and radiological science and engineering.
2021 Student Conference
April 8–10, 2021
North Carolina State University|Raleigh Marriott City Center
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A day in the life of the nuclear community
The November issue of Nuclear News is focused on the individuals who make up our nuclear community.
We invited a small group of those individuals to tell us about their day-to-day work in some of the many occupations and applications of nuclear science and technology, and they responded generously. They were ready to tell us about the part they play, together with colleagues and team members, in supplying clean energy, advancing technology, protecting safety and health, and exploring fundamental science.
In these pages, we see a community that can celebrate both those workdays that record progress moving at a steady pace and the exceptional days when a goal is reached, a briefing is delivered, a contract goes through, a discovery is made, or an unforeseen challenge is overcome.
The Nuclear News staff hopes that you enjoy meeting these members of our community—or maybe get reacquainted with friends—through their words and photos.
We live in a radioactive world - humans always have. Radiation is part of our natural environment. We are exposed to radiation from materials in the earth itself, from naturally occurring radon in the air, from outer space, and from inside our own bodies (as a result of the food and water we consume). This radiation is measured in units called millirems (mrems).
The average dose per person from all sources is about 620 mrems per year. It is not uncommon, however, for any of us to receive less or more than that in a given year (largely due to medical procedures we may undergo). International Standards allow exposure to as much as 5,000 mrems a year for those who work with and around radioactive material.
The Interactive Dose Calculator appears below, but you can also download a printable version of radiation dose chart.
All figures for radiation exposure are average values.
Exposure depends on your elevation (how much air is above you to block radiation). Amounts listed are per year.
Elevations: Atlanta 1050; Chicago 595; Dallas 436; Denver 5280; Las Vegas 2000; Minneapolis 815; Pittsburg 1200; St. Louis 455; Salt Lake City 4400; Spokane 1890. USGS GNIS Search.
Terrestrial (from the ground)
Internal Radiation *
Hours (0.5 mrem per hour in the air)
Medical Diagnostic Tests ‡
Number of millirems are per procedure and are average values. Actual numbers may vary.
Enter the number of procedures per year.
(10 mrem each)
(40 mrem each)
(20 mrem each)
(150 mrem each)
(600 mrem each)
(70 mrem each)
(800 mrem each)
(60 mrem each)
(0.5 mrem each)
(0.1 mrem each)
(200 mrem each)
(700 mrem each)
(1200 mrem each)
(1000 mrem each)
(1274 mrem each)
(300 mrem each)
Your Estimated Annual Radiation Dose:
* Average values.
** Some of the radiation sources listed in this chart result in an exposure to only one part of the body. For example, false teeth and crowns result in a radiation dose to the mouth. The annual dose numbers given here represent the "effective dose" to the whole body.
† The value is less than 1, but adding a value of 1 would be reasonable.
‡ Exposures for medical tests vary depending upon equipment and the patient. The doses listed are an average for an actual exposure.
How is radiation measured? The units used to measure radiation are the rem and the millirem (1/1,000th of a rem). The international unit for measuring radiation exposure is the sievert (Sv), and 1 Sv = 100 rems. Therefore, to convert from the mrem values above to mSv (millisievert), divide the value by 100.
Primary sources for this information are National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports: #92 Public Radiation Exposure from Nuclear Power Generation in the United States (1987); #93 Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States (1987); #94 Exposure of the Population in the United States and Canada from Natural Background Radiation (1987); #95 Radiation Exposure of the U.S. population from Consumer Products and Miscellaneous Sources, (1987); #100 Exposure of the U.S. Population from Diagnostic Medical Radiation (1989); and #160 Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States (2009).