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Young Members Group
The Young Members Group works to encourage and enable all young professional members to be actively involved in the efforts and endeavors of the Society at all levels (Professional Divisions, ANS Governance, Local Sections, etc.) as they transition from the role of a student to the role of a professional. It sponsors non-technical workshops and meetings that provide professional development and networking opportunities for young professionals, collaborates with other Divisions and Groups in developing technical and non-technical content for topical and national meetings, encourages its members to participate in the activities of the Groups and Divisions that are closely related to their professional interests as well as in their local sections, introduces young members to the rules and governance structure of the Society, and nominates young professionals for awards and leadership opportunities available to members.
2022 ANS Annual Meeting
June 12–16, 2022
Anaheim, CA|Anaheim Hilton
The Standards Committee is responsible for the development and maintenance of voluntary consensus standards that address the design, analysis, and operation of components, systems, and facilities related to the application of nuclear science and technology. Find out What’s New, check out the Standards Store, or Get Involved today!
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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Cost drivers of nuclear steam cycle construction
Interest in reducing carbon emissions around the world continues to climb. As a complement to the increasing deployment of variably generating renewables, advanced nuclear is commonly shown in net-zero grid modeling for 2050 because it represents firm electricity production that can flex in output with load demands.1 However, these projections are challenged by the high levelized cost of electricity associated with legacy nuclear construction, which is often more than double that of modern combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants.
We live in a radioactive world - humans always have. Radiation is part of our natural environment. We are exposed to radiation from materials in the earth itself, from naturally occurring radon in the air, from outer space, and from inside our own bodies (as a result of the food and water we consume). This radiation is measured in units called millirems (mrems).
The average dose per person from all sources is about 620 mrems per year. It is not uncommon, however, for any of us to receive less or more than that in a given year (largely due to medical procedures we may undergo). International Standards allow exposure to as much as 5,000 mrems a year for those who work with and around radioactive material.
The Interactive Dose Calculator appears below, but you can also download a printable version of radiation dose chart.
All figures for radiation exposure are average values.
Exposure depends on your elevation (how much air is above you to block radiation). Amounts listed are per year.
Elevations: Atlanta 1050; Chicago 595; Dallas 436; Denver 5280; Las Vegas 2000; Minneapolis 815; Pittsburg 1200; St. Louis 455; Salt Lake City 4400; Spokane 1890. USGS GNIS Search.
Terrestrial (from the ground)
Internal Radiation *
Hours (0.5 mrem per hour in the air)
Medical Diagnostic Tests ‡
Number of millirems are per procedure and are average values. Actual numbers may vary.
Enter the number of procedures per year.
(10 mrem each)
(40 mrem each)
(20 mrem each)
(150 mrem each)
(600 mrem each)
(70 mrem each)
(800 mrem each)
(60 mrem each)
(0.5 mrem each)
(0.1 mrem each)
(200 mrem each)
(700 mrem each)
(1200 mrem each)
(1000 mrem each)
(1274 mrem each)
(300 mrem each)
Your Estimated Annual Radiation Dose:
* Average values.
** Some of the radiation sources listed in this chart result in an exposure to only one part of the body. For example, false teeth and crowns result in a radiation dose to the mouth. The annual dose numbers given here represent the "effective dose" to the whole body.
† The value is less than 1, but adding a value of 1 would be reasonable.
‡ Exposures for medical tests vary depending upon equipment and the patient. The doses listed are an average for an actual exposure.
How is radiation measured? The units used to measure radiation are the rem and the millirem (1/1,000th of a rem). The international unit for measuring radiation exposure is the sievert (Sv), and 1 Sv = 100 rems. Therefore, to convert from the mrem values above to mSv (millisievert), divide the value by 100.
Primary sources for this information are National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports: #92 Public Radiation Exposure from Nuclear Power Generation in the United States (1987); #93 Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States (1987); #94 Exposure of the Population in the United States and Canada from Natural Background Radiation (1987); #95 Radiation Exposure of the U.S. population from Consumer Products and Miscellaneous Sources, (1987); #100 Exposure of the U.S. Population from Diagnostic Medical Radiation (1989); and #160 Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States (2009).