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The division's objectives are to promote the advancement of knowledge and understanding of the fundamental physical phenomena characterizing nuclear reactors and other nuclear systems. The division encourages research and disseminates information through meetings and publications. Areas of technical interest include nuclear data, particle interactions and transport, reactor and nuclear systems analysis, methods, design, validation and operating experience and standards. The Wigner Award heads the awards program.
2021 ANS Winter Meeting and Technology Expo
November 30–December 3, 2021
Washington, DC|Washington Hilton
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Eleven countries newly elected to IAEA board
Eleven countries have been newly elected to serve on the 35-member board of governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency for the period 2021–2022. The election took place on September 23 during the plenary session of the 65th IAEA General Conference, in Vienna, Austria. The conference started on September 20 and will run through September 24.
We live in a radioactive world - humans always have. Radiation is part of our natural environment. We are exposed to radiation from materials in the earth itself, from naturally occurring radon in the air, from outer space, and from inside our own bodies (as a result of the food and water we consume). This radiation is measured in units called millirems (mrems).
The average dose per person from all sources is about 620 mrems per year. It is not uncommon, however, for any of us to receive less or more than that in a given year (largely due to medical procedures we may undergo). International Standards allow exposure to as much as 5,000 mrems a year for those who work with and around radioactive material.
The Interactive Dose Calculator appears below, but you can also download a printable version of radiation dose chart.
All figures for radiation exposure are average values.
Exposure depends on your elevation (how much air is above you to block radiation). Amounts listed are per year.
Elevations: Atlanta 1050; Chicago 595; Dallas 436; Denver 5280; Las Vegas 2000; Minneapolis 815; Pittsburg 1200; St. Louis 455; Salt Lake City 4400; Spokane 1890. USGS GNIS Search.
Terrestrial (from the ground)
Internal Radiation *
Hours (0.5 mrem per hour in the air)
Medical Diagnostic Tests ‡
Number of millirems are per procedure and are average values. Actual numbers may vary.
Enter the number of procedures per year.
(10 mrem each)
(40 mrem each)
(20 mrem each)
(150 mrem each)
(600 mrem each)
(70 mrem each)
(800 mrem each)
(60 mrem each)
(0.5 mrem each)
(0.1 mrem each)
(200 mrem each)
(700 mrem each)
(1200 mrem each)
(1000 mrem each)
(1274 mrem each)
(300 mrem each)
Your Estimated Annual Radiation Dose:
* Average values.
** Some of the radiation sources listed in this chart result in an exposure to only one part of the body. For example, false teeth and crowns result in a radiation dose to the mouth. The annual dose numbers given here represent the "effective dose" to the whole body.
† The value is less than 1, but adding a value of 1 would be reasonable.
‡ Exposures for medical tests vary depending upon equipment and the patient. The doses listed are an average for an actual exposure.
How is radiation measured? The units used to measure radiation are the rem and the millirem (1/1,000th of a rem). The international unit for measuring radiation exposure is the sievert (Sv), and 1 Sv = 100 rems. Therefore, to convert from the mrem values above to mSv (millisievert), divide the value by 100.
Primary sources for this information are National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports: #92 Public Radiation Exposure from Nuclear Power Generation in the United States (1987); #93 Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States (1987); #94 Exposure of the Population in the United States and Canada from Natural Background Radiation (1987); #95 Radiation Exposure of the U.S. population from Consumer Products and Miscellaneous Sources, (1987); #100 Exposure of the U.S. Population from Diagnostic Medical Radiation (1989); and #160 Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States (2009).