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Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy
The mission of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy Division (NNPD) is to promote the peaceful use of nuclear technology while simultaneously preventing the diversion and misuse of nuclear material and technology through appropriate safeguards and security, and promotion of nuclear nonproliferation policies. To achieve this mission, the objectives of the NNPD are to: Promote policy that discourages the proliferation of nuclear technology and material to inappropriate entities. Provide information to ANS members, the technical community at large, opinion leaders, and decision makers to improve their understanding of nuclear nonproliferation issues. Become a recognized technical resource on nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and security issues. Serve as the integration and coordination body for nuclear nonproliferation activities for the ANS. Work cooperatively with other ANS divisions to achieve these objective nonproliferation policies.
Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS 2023)
May 7–11, 2023
Idaho Falls, ID|Snake River Event Center
The Standards Committee is responsible for the development and maintenance of voluntary consensus standards that address the design, analysis, and operation of components, systems, and facilities related to the application of nuclear science and technology. Find out What’s New, check out the Standards Store, or Get Involved today!
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The development of human society and technology is closely correlated to the means of energy acquisition, utilization method, efficiency, and spectrum of applications. High quality of life and sustainable socioeconomic development require a sustainable and reliable energy supply. Wealth, health, food, water, infrastructure, education, and even life expectancy itself strongly correlate with the consumption of energy per capita. Having an adequate, reliable, affordable, eco-friendly, and sustainable supply of energy is becoming more crucial for economic development and improving human well-being.
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The American Nuclear Society’s Special Committee on Generic Standards for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste developed this draft report and recommendations for updated standards for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at future geological repository projects in the United States.
The draft report aims to update the current U.S. geologic repository standards that are codified in the Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191 and apply to all sites except Yucca Mountain in Nevada.
This draft is released to the public to elicit feedback on its draft recommendations. Comments and suggestions are encouraged and should be submitted through the ANS Collaborate website at:
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WHAT ABOUT THE WASTE? “They don’t know what to do with the waste.” It’s a frequent criticism of nuclear energy—one that the nuclear industry has done a poor job of explaining.
In fact, the United States has a functioning system to safely manage nuclear waste from its nuclear power plants: low-level radioactive waste is compacted and shipped to regulated facilities for disposal. Highly radioactive waste materials, such as used nuclear fuel, are small in volume and exist in solid, stable forms. Used fuel is stored at reactor sites, first underwater in secure pools and then in robust, passively cooled dry storage systems.
The U.S. nuclear waste management system is missing one important piece, however: a long-term geologic repository. Like most other nations with nuclear plants, the U.S. has elected to dispose of its commercial used fuel directly in deep geologic formations, isolated from the environment. The site Congress has chosen for the U.S. repository, Yucca Mountain in Nevada, has been stalled by opposition from the state. Given the stalemate, policymakers are rethinking our nation’s approach, with consideration for consolidated interim storage and modified siting methods for waste facilities based on stakeholder consent. In addition, different and innovative technology approaches for management of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are under development, such as advanced reprocessing methods for resource utilization and waste minimization, and borehole disposal of used fuel and other waste forms using well-established drilling techniques.
The future course in waste management is far from settled, but one fact is evident. There will be high-level radioactive waste that requires disposal, and that material will be emplaced in some sort of underground geologic repository or repositories. In fact, other countries are already proceeding down this path. Updated, transparent standards for long-term repository performance are needed to enable siting of future geologic disposal systems and engender public confidence in the safety of those facilities. The current U.S. geologic repository standards for all sites other than Yucca Mountain are codified in the Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, and that regulation has served adequately for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, N.M. However, 40 CFR 191 is inconsistent with current international standards, lacks transparency, and is difficult to apply to certain disposal technologies. Accordingly, the American Nuclear Society Special Committee on Generic Standards for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste has developed recommendations for updated standards that will ensure adequate protection of future inhabitants from the potential hazards posed by material emplaced in a geologic repository.
The country and the world need nuclear fission reactors as a clean, secure, reliable source of energy, both now and in the future. Those reactors have produced—and will continue to produce—relatively small volumes of waste that require geologic disposal. ANS has produced this report with the hope and expectation that it will prove to be a catalyst for the development of updated geologic repository standards by the EPA. That action will be a key building block for future progress on nuclear waste management, irrespective of what course of action policymakers ultimately choose to follow.
Portions of this report have appeared previously in draft form as conference papers presented at ANS’s 2022 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference in Phoenix, Arizona.
Last modified February 14, 2023, 4:11pm CST