Fusion Science and Technology / Volume 45 / Number 3 / May 2004 / Pages 370-386
Technical Paper / Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU)
Transport studies are presented in this chapter. Global scaling studies have been performed using several transport codes. Ohmic plasmas are found to follow the ITER97 L-mode scaling. Transport coefficients are discussed for improved confinement scenarios achieved in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU): the repetitive pellet enhanced plasma mode, showing neoclassical confinement with H-factors up to 1.6, and the electron internal transport barriers (ITBs) with large transport barriers and H-factors up to 1.3. Heat transport models have been tested using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), steady or modulated, as a probe. The electron temperature stiffness observed in the main bulk of steady FTU plasmas can be interpreted both with a critical gradient transport model and with a model based on the existence of canonical profiles. ECRH has also been used to benefit from the improved confinement generally associated with low or negative magnetic shear, and large electron temperatures have been achieved in these conditions. Profile resiliency is observed so that heat transport is not consistent with a constant thermal diffusivity. Experimental optimization is discussed together with the analysis of transport coefficients. Thorough discussions of impurity transport are given, both for intrinsic and injected (from laser blow-off) impurities. Code simulation and experimental data are compared for a series of FTU experiments focusing on the improved confinement modes (pellets and ITBs). A moderate inward pinch velocity is generally required to reproduce the data.