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Supercooling of Hydrogen on Template Materials to Deterministically Seed Ignition-Quality Solid Fuel Layers

S. J. Shin, L. A. Zepeda-Ruiz, J. R. I. Lee, S. H. Baxamusa, R. Dylla-Spears, T. Suratwala, B. J. Kozioziemski

Fusion Science and Technology / Volume 70 / Number 2 / August-September 2016 / Pages 184-190

Technical Paper /

First Online Publication:June 24, 2016
Updated:August 9, 2016

We explored templating effects of various materials for hydrogen (H2 and D2) solidification by measuring the degree of supercooling required for liquid hydrogen to solidify below each triple point. The results show high supercooling (>100 mK) for most metallic, covalent, and ionic solids, and low supercooling (<100 mK) for van der Waals (vdW) solids. We attribute the low supercooling of vdW solids to the weak interaction of the substrate and hydrogen. Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite showed the lowest supercooling among materials that are solid at room temperature, but did not exhibit a templating effect within a fill-tube and capsule assembly.

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