Fusion Science and Technology / Volume 43 / Number 3 / May 2003 / Pages 484-491
Technical Paper / Safety and Environment
The evaluation of the radiological environmental impact of tritium emission to the atmosphere from inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors has different chronological phases. In the release primary phase, the important factors are the boundary conditions: atmospheric and geometric grid from the point of emission. The second phase occurs when the tritium is deposited in the ground. This phase is important in order to account for the dosimetric effects of tritium, and it is a key factor in the chronic and collective doses of the population.
The final internal irradiation dose is calculated as the addition of doses by ingestion, by inhalation of the primary plume, by absorption on the skin, and inhalation by reemission to the atmosphere.
Each of the two chemical forms (HT and HTO) of tritium present in the environment from potential IFE reactor releases contributes in different ways to the most exposed individual and the committed effective dose equivalent (50-CEDE). The HTO presents a much larger percentage of the internal irradiation from inhalation and absorption through the skin than HT. However, in releases where HT represents 100%, the contributions to the total effective dose by ingestion and reemission are important.