Fusion Science and Technology / Volume 43 / Number 3 / May 2003 / Pages 414-419
Technical Paper / Lasers and Heavy-Ion Drivers
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory, is currently investigating various novel materials (single-crystal silicon, <100>, <110>, and <111>) for use as electron beam transmission windows in a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). The chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer >80% (750 keV) while maintaining the structural integrity during the mechanical load (1.3- to 2.0-atm base pressure differential, ~0.5-atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5-Hz repetition rate) and the thermal load across the entire hibachi area (~0.9 Wcm-2). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4-mm square silicon prototype window, coated with 500-nm thin-film silicon nitride (Si3N4), has been fabricated. The window consists of 81 square panes 0.019 ± 0.001 mm thick. The stiffened (orthogonal) sections are 0.065 mm wide and 0.500 mm thick (approximate). Assessment of silicon (and silicon nitride) material properties and computer-aided design modeling/analysis of the window design suggest that silicon may be a viable solution to inherent parameters and constraints.