Fusion Science and Technology / Volume 42 / Number 2,3 / September 2002 / Pages 452-466
Development and operation of a lower hybrid range of frequency (LHRF) system for JT-60U are presented. The LHRF system was constructed in 1986 to study current drive and plasma heating at high injection power. Its main specifications are the total output power 24 MW with 24 high power klystrons, the frequency 1.74 to 2.23 GHz, and the injection power ~10 MW with three conventional antennas. To improve the antenna capabilities such as the current drive efficiency, N//peak controllability and the power injection properties, a 3-divided multi-junction type (CD1' launcher) and a 12-divided multi-junction type (CD2 launcher) are developed. The CD2 launcher can also reduce the number of the transmission lines to one fourth of the original system. The injection power ~7 MW is attained, and then the highest current drive efficiency 3.5 × 1019 m-2AW-1 and the highest non-inductive driven current 3.6 MA are achieved. The high power klystron capable of the cathode-heater operation times more than 3000 hours is improved. The outgassing rate is estimated with the CD2 launcher as 1-10 × 10-6 Pam3/sm2, which is sufficiently small not to need the vacuum pumping system for the launcher. Heat load onto the launcher due to the ripple enhanced banana drift loss is first observed in NBI or ICRF heating. From investigation on antenna-plasma coupling, the gas puffing improves distant coupling.