Fusion Science and Technology / Volume 41 / Number 3P2 / May 2002 / Pages 812-816
Design and Model / Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology Tsukuba, Japan November 12-16, 2001
The environmental impact of the nuclear fusion energy is expected to be very small. It will depend mainly on the reactor materials, and not on the own process of energy production, contrarily to the fission technologies used today. The evaluation of the radiological environmental impact of tritium emission (routine, accidental) requires the use of mathematical and statistical models of dispersion to the biosphere. In the inertial fusion reactors (IFE) design, the coolant is a production source of tritium. We have used inventories of tritium from IFE such as HYLIFE II, OSIRIS, SOMBRERO and CASCADE. The two chemical forms of tritium in the environment contribute in a different way to the Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (50-CEDE). As much as 40% HTO and 98% HT contribute from ingestion of foods. The HTO presents a much higher percentage in the internal radiation for inhalation and absorption for the skin than the HT. The maximum values are in the near ranges to the reactor about 100–400 m of distance of the emission source. In HT emissions the contribution to the total effective dose by ingestion and re-emission is important. The atmospheric and geometric conditions are a decisive factor in the contribution levels from the tritium to the dose. The wet and dry depositions as well as the classes of stability and the rain intensity factor vary these levels increasing or diminishing the values of the dose.