Fusion Science and Technology / Volume 42 / Number 1 / July 2002 / Pages 7-31
Research activities of the Japanese tokamaks JT-60U, JFT-2M, and TRIAM-1M are described. The recent JT-60 program is focused on the establishment of a scientific basis of advanced steady-state operation. Plasma performance in transient and quasi steady states has been significantly improved, utilizing reversed shear and weak shear (high-p) ELMy H-modes characterized by both internal and edge transport barriers and high bootstrap current fractions. Development of each key issue for advanced steady-state operation has also been advanced. Advanced and basic research of JFT-2M has been performed to develop high-performance tokamak plasma as well as the structural material for a fusion reactor. Toroidal field ripple reduction with ferritic steel plates outside the vacuum vessel is successfully demonstrated. No adverse effects to the plasma were observed with poloidal fields inside the vacuum vessel (partial covering). Preparation is in progress for full-scale testing of the compatibility of the ferritic steel wall (full covering) with plasma. A heavy ion beam probe has been installed to study H-mode plasmas. Compact toroid (CT) injection experiments are performed, showing deep CT penetration into the core region of the H-mode. The TRIAM project has investigated steady-state operation and high-performance plasma of a tokamak with the high toroidal magnetic field superconducting tokamak. Four important contributions in the fields of fusion technology of superconducting tokamaks, steady-state operation, high-performance plasma, and startup of plasma current without the assistance of center solenoid coils have been achieved on TRIAM-1M, especially regarding steady-state operation by realization of a discharge for >3 h.