The technologies and chemical solutions for decontamination of high-power reactors are limited for use in small-scale power generation due to fundamental differences in operating conditions, fuel composition, fuel-element cladding structure, coolant water chemistry, and structural materials. The small space of the primary circuit and specific design and operational features have made it necessary to optimize the decontamination technologies for different stages of the naval rector plant (NRP) life cycle. Based on many years’ experience in maintenance, repair, and operation of NRPs, the principles for optimization of the process approaches are defined to reduce radioactive contamination of NRP equipment. In each particular case the decontamination technology is selected with due consideration for the NRP’s design, actual radioactive contamination, and the requirements for the cleanliness of the primary system after decontamination. This makes it possible to optimize the number of treatment cycles/stages and reagent consumption and to minimize the probability of recurrent deposit formation and the liquid radwaste amount.