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The division's objectives are to promote the advancement of knowledge and understanding of the fundamental physical phenomena characterizing nuclear reactors and other nuclear systems. The division encourages research and disseminates information through meetings and publications. Areas of technical interest include nuclear data, particle interactions and transport, reactor and nuclear systems analysis, methods, design, validation and operating experience and standards. The Wigner Award heads the awards program.
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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
What is involved in radiation protection at accelerator facilities?
Particle accelerators have evolved from exotic machines probing hadron interactions to understand the fundamentals of our world to widely used instruments in research and for medical and industrial use. For research purposes, high-power machines are employed, often producing secondary particle beams through primary beam interaction with a target material involving many meters of shielding. The charged beam interacts with the surrounding structures, producing both prompt radiation and secondary radiation from activated materials. After beam termination, some parts of the facility remain radioactive and potentially can become radiation hazards over time. Radiation protection for accelerator facilities involves a range of actions for operation within safe boundaries (an accelerator safety envelope). Each facility establishes fundamental safety principles, requirements, and measures to control radiation exposure to people and the release of radioactive material in the environment.
Eymon Lan, Shanbin Shi
Nuclear Technology | Volume 209 | Number 12 | December 2023 | Pages 2016-2029
Research Article | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2022.2157661
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
For National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s space mission planning, tons of cryogenic propellants need to be stored under microgravity conditions. Because of heat leaks into cryogenic propellant tanks, thermal stratification develops from lack of natural convection leading to boil-off of precious propellants. A thermodynamic vent system operates with a jet mixer to reduce thermal gradients within the fluid and control pressure inside the tank. In this work, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes–based computational fluid dynamics model was developed to study the fluid dynamics of jet-induced mixing and jet impingement on the large ullage bubble in the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) under microgravity conditions. First, the computational model was benchmarked against existing experimental flow visualization data on the jet impingement. The jet mixing was then compared quantitatively with correlations for the jet radius to analyze the volumetric flow rate of the jet due to entrainment in the near field of the nozzle. The findings show that the confinement of the jet due to the ullage and the walls contributes positively to the jet entrainment rate, thus increasing the jet volumetric flow rate. In addition, the turbulence parameters are plotted to study the flow development for the TPCE case where the jet does not penetrate the ullage. Last, the model was used to determine the jet Weber number for penetration on the ullage bubble by varying jet inlet velocities. Numerical results show that the jet can penetrate the ullage when the jet Weber number is greater than 1.3.