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Nuclear Criticality Safety
NCSD provides communication among nuclear criticality safety professionals through the development of standards, the evolution of training methods and materials, the presentation of technical data and procedures, and the creation of specialty publications. In these ways, the division furthers the exchange of technical information on nuclear criticality safety with the ultimate goal of promoting the safe handling of fissionable materials outside reactors.
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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
What is involved in radiation protection at accelerator facilities?
Particle accelerators have evolved from exotic machines probing hadron interactions to understand the fundamentals of our world to widely used instruments in research and for medical and industrial use. For research purposes, high-power machines are employed, often producing secondary particle beams through primary beam interaction with a target material involving many meters of shielding. The charged beam interacts with the surrounding structures, producing both prompt radiation and secondary radiation from activated materials. After beam termination, some parts of the facility remain radioactive and potentially can become radiation hazards over time. Radiation protection for accelerator facilities involves a range of actions for operation within safe boundaries (an accelerator safety envelope). Each facility establishes fundamental safety principles, requirements, and measures to control radiation exposure to people and the release of radioactive material in the environment.
Zachary Welker, Annalisa Manera, Victor Petrov, Paolo Balestra
Nuclear Technology | Volume 209 | Number 10 | October 2023 | Pages 1577-1591
Research Article | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2022.2134673
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Air ingress measurements using the 1/20th-scaled Helium Air Ingress gas Reactor Experiment (HAIRE) facility show key geometric variables of interest and their effect on air ingress in small- and medium-sized breaks in High Temperature Gas cooled Reactors. These variables include but are not limited to break diameter, break angle, and break wall thickness. Differing wall thicknesses for the same break diameter can have order-of-magnitude changes to the air ingress rate, which is a key figure of merit in the air ingress accident scenario. Additionally, different break sizes can change the importance of the angle in the break scenario. With smaller breaks, the flow will not transition from intermittent flow, to countercurrent flow, to diffusive flow as the break rotates from vertically upward toward vertically downward. This would lead to less variability with smaller breaks, which in turn would make the accident scenario more predictable for smaller-sized breaks.