ANS is committed to advancing, fostering, and promoting the development and application of nuclear sciences and technologies to benefit society.
Explore the many uses for nuclear science and its impact on energy, the environment, healthcare, food, and more.
Human Factors, Instrumentation & Controls
Improving task performance, system reliability, system and personnel safety, efficiency, and effectiveness are the division's main objectives. Its major areas of interest include task design, procedures, training, instrument and control layout and placement, stress control, anthropometrics, psychological input, and motivation.
2024 ANS Annual Conference
June 16–19, 2024
Las Vegas, NV|Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino
The Standards Committee is responsible for the development and maintenance of voluntary consensus standards that address the design, analysis, and operation of components, systems, and facilities related to the application of nuclear science and technology. Find out What’s New, check out the Standards Store, or Get Involved today!
Latest Magazine Issues
Latest Journal Issues
Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
What is involved in radiation protection at accelerator facilities?
Particle accelerators have evolved from exotic machines probing hadron interactions to understand the fundamentals of our world to widely used instruments in research and for medical and industrial use. For research purposes, high-power machines are employed, often producing secondary particle beams through primary beam interaction with a target material involving many meters of shielding. The charged beam interacts with the surrounding structures, producing both prompt radiation and secondary radiation from activated materials. After beam termination, some parts of the facility remain radioactive and potentially can become radiation hazards over time. Radiation protection for accelerator facilities involves a range of actions for operation within safe boundaries (an accelerator safety envelope). Each facility establishes fundamental safety principles, requirements, and measures to control radiation exposure to people and the release of radioactive material in the environment.
Kai Kosowski, Marcus Seidl
Nuclear Technology | Volume 209 | Number 10 | October 2023 | Pages 1549-1564
Research Article | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2022.2130660
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The extension of the operating domain of PreussenElektra’s Konvoi-type pressurized water reactors (PWRs) beyond the natural end of cycle is known as stretch-out operation. A range of possibilities exists to increase nuclear fuel utilization to continue operation after the boron concentration reaches its dilution limit. The most basic option is to continue operation with constant average moderator temperature, which results in a relatively fast decrease in reactor power. From a fuel utilization point of view, this is the least optimal procedure. In PreussenElektra’s PWR fleet, an enhanced operation mode is adopted, leading to a comparatively modest decrease in reactor power and very high utilization of nuclear fuel. Initially, the stretch-out mode provided an option to gain flexibility regarding outage planning. More recently, the stretch-out method has served as a practical approach to optimizing electricity generation costs during the last cycles before the final shutdown as stipulated by law, as operators can extend the cycle length in a range of 30 to 60 days after the natural end of cycle. This paper describes the licensing rationale, the feasibility of this type of operation, and the operating requirements and experience. The system parameters affected by stretch-out operation are discussed. Adjustments of set points of thermal-hydraulic variables in the primary and secondary systems are explained. Licensing requirements for safe reactor operation in stretch-out mode are reviewed. Furthermore, aspects of neutronic and thermal-hydraulic core surveillance are included. After more than 35 years and counting, the methods of increasing fuel utilization are not new, and an evaluation of experience and effectiveness is in order.