A test called B4.2 in the OECD-ATLAS2 project was performed to simulate loss of the residual heat removal system (RHRS) during mid-loop operation (MLO) using a thermal-hydraulic (T-H) integral-effect test facility: the Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation (ATLAS). The main purpose of this test was to investigate a T-H transient in the reactor coolant system (RCS) during loss of the RHRS and to evaluate the effectiveness of reflux condensation and the capability of a safety injection tank (SIT) on shutdown coolability. The initial and boundary conditions for the B4.2 test were appropriately determined according to a state of MLO corresponding to 65 h after reactor trip in the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MW(electric) (APR1400). During the loss of RHRS accident transient simulation, major T-H parameters such as system pressures, temperatures, and collapsed water levels in the RCS were measured, and unique T-H phenomena such as reflux/cocurrent condensations, off-take, countercurrent flow, and countercurrent flow limitation were investigated. In this paper, the overall T-H behavior in the RCS during a simulated loss of the RHRS with SITs is highlighted to provide a better understanding of T-H phenomena regarding coolability with reflux condensation.