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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
What is involved in radiation protection at accelerator facilities?
Particle accelerators have evolved from exotic machines probing hadron interactions to understand the fundamentals of our world to widely used instruments in research and for medical and industrial use. For research purposes, high-power machines are employed, often producing secondary particle beams through primary beam interaction with a target material involving many meters of shielding. The charged beam interacts with the surrounding structures, producing both prompt radiation and secondary radiation from activated materials. After beam termination, some parts of the facility remain radioactive and potentially can become radiation hazards over time. Radiation protection for accelerator facilities involves a range of actions for operation within safe boundaries (an accelerator safety envelope). Each facility establishes fundamental safety principles, requirements, and measures to control radiation exposure to people and the release of radioactive material in the environment.
Drew Ryan, Ran Kong, David Kang, Adam Dix, Seungjin Kim, Jiawei Bian
Nuclear Technology | Volume 209 | Number 10 | October 2023 | Pages 1485-1494
Research Article | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2022.2160172
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Inclined two-phase flow geometries can be found in advanced nuclear reactor systems, such as the helical coil steam generators being considered for use in current integral steam generator designs. While this geometry includes inclination and centrifugal effects coupled together on two-phase flow, there have been limited studies to separate these effects to develop robust models. The majority of two-phase flow research is conducted on vertical channels, with recent work being conducted in a horizontal orientation and limited work in inclined pipes. In the current work, experiments are conducted in an adiabatic two-phase flow test facility to investigate the inclination effect on an air-water flow in straight pipes near atmospheric pressure. The pipe is made of clear acrylic with an inner diameter of 25.4 mm. The inclination of the flow loop can be adjusted in increments of 0.1 deg. Measurement capabilities are included to obtain local two-phase flow parameters such as void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble velocity, and Sauter-mean diameter using a local multisensor conductivity probe, local two-phase flow static pressure and pressure drop using a pressure transducer, and flow visualization using a high-speed video camera system. The experimental studies performed in the current work demonstrate how changes in inclination angle can affect the gas distribution flow regime transition and two-phase frictional pressure drop. Based on these experimental results, existing correlations for frictional pressure drop are evaluated, and the modified Lockhart-Martinelli correlation is found to predict the two-phase frictional pressure drop for inclined two-phase flows. This method agrees with experimental data within 7% on average.