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The mission of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy Division (NNPD) is to promote the peaceful use of nuclear technology while simultaneously preventing the diversion and misuse of nuclear material and technology through appropriate safeguards and security, and promotion of nuclear nonproliferation policies. To achieve this mission, the objectives of the NNPD are to: Promote policy that discourages the proliferation of nuclear technology and material to inappropriate entities. Provide information to ANS members, the technical community at large, opinion leaders, and decision makers to improve their understanding of nuclear nonproliferation issues. Become a recognized technical resource on nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and security issues. Serve as the integration and coordination body for nuclear nonproliferation activities for the ANS. Work cooperatively with other ANS divisions to achieve these objective nonproliferation policies.
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What is involved in radiation protection at accelerator facilities?
Particle accelerators have evolved from exotic machines probing hadron interactions to understand the fundamentals of our world to widely used instruments in research and for medical and industrial use. For research purposes, high-power machines are employed, often producing secondary particle beams through primary beam interaction with a target material involving many meters of shielding. The charged beam interacts with the surrounding structures, producing both prompt radiation and secondary radiation from activated materials. After beam termination, some parts of the facility remain radioactive and potentially can become radiation hazards over time. Radiation protection for accelerator facilities involves a range of actions for operation within safe boundaries (an accelerator safety envelope). Each facility establishes fundamental safety principles, requirements, and measures to control radiation exposure to people and the release of radioactive material in the environment.
Shigeki Shiba, Daiki Iwahashi, Tsuyoshi Okawa
Nuclear Technology | Volume 209 | Number 8 | August 2023 | Pages 1154-1163
Research Article | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2023.2191588
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
From the viewpoint of criticality management in the fuel debris retrieval operation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, it is important in criticality safety analyses to consider the behavior of fuel debris particles as they fall into the water, given that the neutron moderation condition of the fuel debris can dramatically change. In this study, we evaluated a reactivity insertion while fuel debris particles dropped into the water. Specifically, we considered the effects of the fuel debris particle-size distribution in either an erroneous operation or a postulated accident in the fuel debris retrieval operation. Three types of fuel debris particle-size distribution were assumed: monodisperse, uniform, and Rosin-Rammler. The behaviors of the fuel debris particles during sedimentation were evaluated using the coupled Distinct Element Method–Moving Particle Simulation (DEM-MPS) code. The multiplication factors corresponding to the behaviors of the falling fuel debris were calculated by a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP3.0 with JENDL-4.0. Consequently, the multiplication factors changed with the particle motions during the sedimentation, and the trends of the multiplication factors differed between the particle-size distributions. Especially, the 2-cm monodisperse particle-size distribution showed the highest multiplication factor during sedimentation, the trend of which differed from the others in the fuel debris particles dispersing and piled-up phases in the water.