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The mission of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy Division (NNPD) is to promote the peaceful use of nuclear technology while simultaneously preventing the diversion and misuse of nuclear material and technology through appropriate safeguards and security, and promotion of nuclear nonproliferation policies. To achieve this mission, the objectives of the NNPD are to: Promote policy that discourages the proliferation of nuclear technology and material to inappropriate entities. Provide information to ANS members, the technical community at large, opinion leaders, and decision makers to improve their understanding of nuclear nonproliferation issues. Become a recognized technical resource on nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and security issues. Serve as the integration and coordination body for nuclear nonproliferation activities for the ANS. Work cooperatively with other ANS divisions to achieve these objective nonproliferation policies.
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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
What is involved in radiation protection at accelerator facilities?
Particle accelerators have evolved from exotic machines probing hadron interactions to understand the fundamentals of our world to widely used instruments in research and for medical and industrial use. For research purposes, high-power machines are employed, often producing secondary particle beams through primary beam interaction with a target material involving many meters of shielding. The charged beam interacts with the surrounding structures, producing both prompt radiation and secondary radiation from activated materials. After beam termination, some parts of the facility remain radioactive and potentially can become radiation hazards over time. Radiation protection for accelerator facilities involves a range of actions for operation within safe boundaries (an accelerator safety envelope). Each facility establishes fundamental safety principles, requirements, and measures to control radiation exposure to people and the release of radioactive material in the environment.
Michio Murase, Yoichi Utanohara
Nuclear Technology | Volume 209 | Number 7 | July 2023 | Pages 1086-1100
Technical Paper | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2023.2175598
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of superheat on wall condensation from a steam and air mixture. We previously measured the radial and axial temperature profiles of a superheated steam-air mixture in a vertical pipe with a diameter of 49.5 mm and a cooling height of 610 mm. In this study, we carried out a numerical simulation for the previous measurements by using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT, and evaluated the profiles of the mixture temperature Tg and steam mass fraction Xs. The profiles of Tg and the saturated temperature Ts obtained from Xs agreed well with those measured with superheated and saturated conditions, respectively. The validity of the correlation to evaluate a condensation heat flux qc (which was based on the gradient of Xs) was confirmed. Profiles of the dimensionless velocity u+, temperature T+, and steam mass fraction Ys+ were obtained, and they were compared with wall functions (i.e., the linear function for a viscous sublayer and the logarithmic law for a turbulent layer). The computed profile agreed with the wall function for u+, agreed relatively well with the wall function for T+, and agreed well with the correlation for Ys+ obtained from data measured with saturated steam-air conditions in the region of the turbulent layer.