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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
What is involved in radiation protection at accelerator facilities?
Particle accelerators have evolved from exotic machines probing hadron interactions to understand the fundamentals of our world to widely used instruments in research and for medical and industrial use. For research purposes, high-power machines are employed, often producing secondary particle beams through primary beam interaction with a target material involving many meters of shielding. The charged beam interacts with the surrounding structures, producing both prompt radiation and secondary radiation from activated materials. After beam termination, some parts of the facility remain radioactive and potentially can become radiation hazards over time. Radiation protection for accelerator facilities involves a range of actions for operation within safe boundaries (an accelerator safety envelope). Each facility establishes fundamental safety principles, requirements, and measures to control radiation exposure to people and the release of radioactive material in the environment.
Jordan Crowell, Eleodor Nichita
Nuclear Technology | Volume 209 | Number 4 | April 2023 | Pages 504-514
Technical Paper | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2022.2135334
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Small Canadian arctic communities rely on diesel generators for their electricity needs. Providing such generators with fuel year round presents logistical challenges because of inclement weather and the long transportation distances involved. This work presents the conceptual design of a 10-MW(thermal) microreactor that can be used to provide 3.5 MW of electricity as well as district heating to arctic communities. The reactor has a lead-cooled and graphite-moderated core with 13 vertical fuel channels containing high-assay low-enriched uranium fuel enriched to 10%. The core is enclosed in a unpressurized reactor vessel and is passively cooled through natural convection. Stirling engines are used to drive the electrical generators. The hot cylinders of the Stirling engines are located in the unpressurized reactor vessel and are heated directly by the primary coolant. Preliminary neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses of the core indicate that the design is technically feasible and that the reactor can function for 2 years and 9 months without refueling.