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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
What is involved in radiation protection at accelerator facilities?
Particle accelerators have evolved from exotic machines probing hadron interactions to understand the fundamentals of our world to widely used instruments in research and for medical and industrial use. For research purposes, high-power machines are employed, often producing secondary particle beams through primary beam interaction with a target material involving many meters of shielding. The charged beam interacts with the surrounding structures, producing both prompt radiation and secondary radiation from activated materials. After beam termination, some parts of the facility remain radioactive and potentially can become radiation hazards over time. Radiation protection for accelerator facilities involves a range of actions for operation within safe boundaries (an accelerator safety envelope). Each facility establishes fundamental safety principles, requirements, and measures to control radiation exposure to people and the release of radioactive material in the environment.
Hanna Koskinen, Jari Laarni, Marja Liinasuo, Leena Salo
Nuclear Technology | Volume 209 | Number 3 | March 2023 | Pages 332-345
Technical Paper—Human-Machine Interface Technologies | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2022.2087840
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The Systems Usability Case (SUC) approach enables a requirement-based human factors (HF) evaluation of complex technical systems that may cover the entire verification and validation process. SUC is based on the Safety Case approach and on the Systems Usability (SU) construct. One of the main aims of establishing a Safety Case is to bring the arguments and evidence for safety to the front in such a way that the reasoning supports the work of a regulator or licensing organization. In the end, the approach enables evaluating the SU of a system and making a reasonable solid argument about the acceptance of the system for use. The question is how the conclusions are reached through a reasoning process in which the arguments are made about the evidence [i.e., identified human engineering discrepancies (HEDs)] to approve or reject the claim concerning the quality of the system. The paper presents an application of SUC to real data from an integrated system validation of the modernized control room (CR) of the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The results of the validation are discussed from the point of view of how the SUC approach enables forming a statement about the acceptance of the CR. Moreover, practical examples are given to demonstrate the identified HF issues and how they were handled in the validation process. The paper provides a general framework for handling of HEDs and for their resolution that can be used in the consolidation of validation test results in a real-world validation project.