Nuclear power plant (NPP) control room operators must make ongoing computations and decisions that maximize production and ensure safety, which places a high cognitive burden on the operators. How cognitions such as attention, visuospatial ability, and working memory interact with socio-technical systems to achieve optimal operations is well studied. However, there is an absence of research that examines how cognitive functioning within the NPP control room environment is moderated by developmental aging processes. This is of critical importance because different types of cognitive actions are known to develop and peak at different times across the adult life span, and it is becoming increasingly clear that there is no age at which all cognitive faculties operate at maximum capacity. Thus, given that NPPs are experiencing an aging workforce, it is vital to identify how mission-critical cognitions change with age. This paper reviews implications of aging on reactor operators in the current and new fleet. We highlight lessons that can be learned from state-of-the-art human factors research that considers aging, lessons from the large cognitive aging literature, and lessons from aging workers in other industries that use sophisticated socio-technical systems, such as aviation. We also consider the important subject of aging effects versus expertise and present preliminary data that support the premise that age of operator is linked to effective and efficient operations but that this relationship may be moderated by level of operations expertise. Finally, we apply these lessons to future considerations for aging research in current nuclear operations and with the advent of advanced modernized control rooms.