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The division's objectives are to promote the advancement of knowledge and understanding of the fundamental physical phenomena characterizing nuclear reactors and other nuclear systems. The division encourages research and disseminates information through meetings and publications. Areas of technical interest include nuclear data, particle interactions and transport, reactor and nuclear systems analysis, methods, design, validation and operating experience and standards. The Wigner Award heads the awards program.
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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
What is involved in radiation protection at accelerator facilities?
Particle accelerators have evolved from exotic machines probing hadron interactions to understand the fundamentals of our world to widely used instruments in research and for medical and industrial use. For research purposes, high-power machines are employed, often producing secondary particle beams through primary beam interaction with a target material involving many meters of shielding. The charged beam interacts with the surrounding structures, producing both prompt radiation and secondary radiation from activated materials. After beam termination, some parts of the facility remain radioactive and potentially can become radiation hazards over time. Radiation protection for accelerator facilities involves a range of actions for operation within safe boundaries (an accelerator safety envelope). Each facility establishes fundamental safety principles, requirements, and measures to control radiation exposure to people and the release of radioactive material in the environment.
Kyle L. Walton, John D. Brockman, Sudarshan K. Loyalka
Nuclear Technology | Volume 209 | Number 1 | January 2023 | Pages 82-89
Technical Paper | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2022.2108687
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The diffusion of fission products (FPs) in reactor materials affects the nuclear source term. The diffusion coefficient itself is measured through various techniques. In the release method, it is of interest to know the initial distribution of the FPs in nuclear graphite or other materials from an exterior measurement like mass surface flux or cumulative mass release. In this paper, a Fredholm integral of the first kind is considered, relating the initial distribution to the cumulative release fraction of a diffusant from a spherically symmetric body. The Tikhonov regularization, conjugate gradient least-squares (CGLS) method, and algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) with nonnegativity and conserved mass constraints were compared to fractional release data from a simulated linear profile using data for Cs diffusion in a 0.32-cm sphere NBG-18 at 1090 K. The Tikhonov regularization was shown to provide a better estimation of the initial linear distribution than the CGLS and ART methods. The performance of the Tikhonov regularization was further examined with simulated constant, quartic, and exponential initial distributions. The Tikhonov regularization provided a reasonable recovery of the exponential profile, while the estimation of the linear, constant, and quartic profiles suffers from several issues.