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Finland in Front: The World’s Likely First Spent Fuel Repository Moves Toward Licensing
The year 2024 is shaping up to be a historic one for Posiva, the waste management organization owned by Finland’s two nuclear power plant utilities, Fortum and Teollisuuden Voima. The company is looking to receive regulatory approval of its operating license for the Onkalo deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste by the end of the year.
Lee Mason, Steve Oleson, David Jacobson, Paul Schmitz, Lou Qualls, Michael Smith, Brian Ade, Jorge Navarro
Nuclear Technology | Volume 208 | Number 1 | December 2022 | Pages S52-S66
Technical Paper | doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2022.2045180
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Under the Mars Transportation Assessment Study, NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy are performing analyses and generating concepts for crewed nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) missions to Mars. This paper presents the results of trade studies and concept development for the nuclear electric power system, consisting of the fission reactor, radiation shielding, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD). The nuclear power team completed trade studies to evaluate different reactor and power conversion technologies and developed preliminary concepts for the crew shielding, waste heat radiators, and PMAD. The initial results suggest that a modified terrestrial microreactor combined with supercritical CO2 Brayton conversion could be used to perform the crew and cargo missions with satisfactory performance and modest risk. The paper includes preliminary development strategies that could bring the NEP technology to fruition for Mars missions in the late 2030s or early 2040s.