The development and qualification of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) fuel element technologies would be aided by an in-depth model of material response and failure modes at operating conditions. Integrated computational materials engineering techniques have the potential to provide such a model, as demonstrated here through three case studies focused on a tungsten–uranium mononitride (UN) cermet fuel. The first case focuses on the erosion of tungsten (also named wolfram), a nominal coating/cladding and fuel element matrix material, in hot hydrogen. Ab initio techniques are used to calculate erosion rates and thermal expansion at NTP operating conditions. The second focuses on the stability of UN fuels at high temperature and in the presence of hydrogen. Phase diagram techniques augmented with ab initio thermodynamic data reveal potential instabilities and decomposition pathways at high hydrogen concentrations. The third focuses on using microstructure information to predict high-temperature mechanical response and failure of tungsten. Combined finite element and discrete dislocation dynamics techniques provide mechanical properties in agreement with experimental methods. The integration of these techniques for an all-encompassing material model is discussed.