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Climate change needs an Operation Warp Speed
The government of the United States should throw its muscle behind ramping up a mammoth, rapid rollout of all forms of renewable energy through Operation Warp Speed, similar to what is being done with COVID-19, Clive Thompson writes in an Ideas column for Wired.
The rollout should include energy sources that we already know how to build—like solar and wind — but also experimental emerging sources such as geothermal and small nuclear, and cutting-edge forms of energy storage or transmission.
Dong Hun Lee, Seungjin Kim, Han Young Yoon, Jae Jun Jeong
Nuclear Technology | Volume 204 | Number 3 | December 2018 | Pages 330-342
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2018.1475193
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe has a pronounced feature; that is, two-phase-flow parameters are highly nonsymmetric because gravity is perpendicular to the mean flow direction. Thus, three-dimensional analysis is necessary for the accurate prediction of two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe, such as the hot leg and cold leg of a pressurized water reactor and the pressure tubes in a CANDU reactor. In this study, we simulated bubbly flows in horizontal pipes using the CUPID code, which adopts a two-fluid, three-field model for two-phase flow. In the preliminary calculations, it was found that the particle-averaged two-fluid momentum equation, rather than the standard two-fluid momentum equation, predicts a physically reasonable slip ratio and nondrag forces, except turbulent dispersion forces have negligible effects on the radial void distribution when the particle-averaged two-fluid momentum equation is used. Based on the results, we selected the physical models and computational mesh for subsequent code assessment using various bubbly flow experiments in horizontal pipes. The turbulent dispersion force model was improved to take into account the large void fraction change at the top. The results of the code assessment show good predictions for the axial pressure drop, liquid velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy profile and predict reasonably well the effects of jl and jg on two-phase-flow parameters. However, additional studies are needed for more accurate prediction of the nonsymmetric distribution of gas velocity and turbulent kinetic energy.