In this paper, an online reactor neutron spectrum measurement method is presented. The basic theory of this method is based on the unfolding of few-channel data, in which three miniature ionization chambers are applied. The neutron spectrum can be unfolded with the count rates and response functions of the three detectors through an unfolding program. In order to investigate the feasibility of this method, simulation tests have been performed with the reference neutron spectra and neutron spectra from the China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR). The research results show that this method can provide an alternative means for an online neutron spectrum measurement in the reactors. This method is suitable to be applied in fast neutron reactors due to the miniature size of ionization chambers and fission threshold of 238U.