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February 9–11, 2021
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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Notes on fusion
The ST25-HTS tokamak.
Governments around the world have been interested in fusion for more than 70 years. Fusion research was largely secret until 1968, when the Soviets unveiled exciting results from their tokamak (a magnetic confinement fusion device with a particular configuration that produces a toroidal plasma). The Soviets realized that tokamaks were not useful as weapons but could produce plasma in the million-degree temperature range to demonstrate Soviet scientific and technical prowess to the world.
Following this breakthrough, government laboratories around the world continued to pursue various methods of confining hot plasma to understand plasma physics under extreme conditions, getting closer and closer to the conditions necessary for fusion energy production. Tokamaks have been by far the most successful configuration. In the 1990s, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory produced 10 MW of fusion power using deuterium-tritium fusion. A few years later, the Joint European Torus (JET) in the United Kingdom increased that to 16 MW, getting close to breakeven using 24 MW of power to heat the plasma.
Jun Li, Xiao-Bin Tang, Long-Gang Gui, Yun Ge, Ying Chen, Da Chen
Nuclear Technology | Volume 195 | Number 1 | July 2016 | Pages 79-86
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.13182/NT15-72
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
An off-line boron meter in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has the disadvantages of lagging data measurements and a long response time. This paper aims to shorten the response time and enhance the measurement accuracy of this type of device. First, the shortcomings of off-line boron meters were analyzed and the serpentuator system was proposed to replace the typical container system. Then, both FLUENT and GEANT simulation tools were used to demonstrate the merits of the serpentuator system. FLUENT was used to simulate the fluid response, while GEANT4 was used to obtain the f(P) curve. The simulation results from FLUENT indicate that the residence time of the fluid in the container system was approximately 9.5 times that in the serpentuator system. The simulation results obtained from GEANT4 manifest that the f(P) curve of the rectangular section was steeper than for the circular section. When the polyethylene was 8 cm thick, the f(P) curve was the steepest. Compared with a serpentuator made of titanium alloy, stainless steel, and brass, a serpentuator made of zirconium alloy or aluminum alloy achieved a steeper f(P) curve. Therefore, the serpentuator system is more applicable for PWRs using an off-line boron letdown through a chemical and volume control system.