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Penfield and Enos: Outage planning in the COVID-19 era
Energy Harbor’s Beaver Valley plant, located about 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pa., was one of many nuclear sites preparing for a scheduled outage as the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March. The baseline objective of any planned outage—to complete refueling on time and get back to producing power—was complicated by the need to prevent the transmission of COVID-19.
While over 200 of the plant’s 850 staff members worked from home to support the outage, about 800 contractors were brought in for jobs that could only be done on-site. Nuclear News Staff Writer Susan Gallier talked with Beaver Valley Site Vice President Rod Penfield and General Plant Manager Matt Enos about the planning and communication required.
Beaver Valley can look forward to several more outages in the future, now that plans to shut down the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, each rated at about 960 MWe, were reversed in March. “The deactivation announcement happened in the middle of all our planning,” Enos said. “It’s a shame we haven’t had a chance to get together as a large group and celebrate that yet.”
While the focus remains on safe pandemic operations, the site now has two causes for celebration: an outage success and a long future ahead.
Kyoung Woo Seo, Moo Hwan Kim, Mark H. Anderson, Michael L. Corradini
Nuclear Technology | Volume 154 | Number 3 | June 2006 | Pages 335-349
Technical Paper | Thermal Hydraulics | dx.doi.org/10.13182/NT06-A3738
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Because of the dramatic variation of physical properties with a modest change of temperature, no existing engineering correlation or models can accurately predict heat transfer of supercritical fluids. This paper seeks to classify the conditions where the existing models are applicable and to better understand these local heat transfer mechanisms. The first objective is the focus of this paper. FLUENT was employed to compute the wall temperatures for various heat flux and mass flux conditions and to be compared with experimental data. Because the model was developed for a wide range of flow conditions, it was necessary to make certain assumptions. The simulations showed a good agreement with high mass flux conditions, where buoyancy effects could be neglected. The FLUENT model, however, had difficulty predicting the localized low heat transfer rates seen in the combined condition of high heat flux and low mass flux. A new generalized parameter, dependent on the heat and mass flux, was developed to classify under which conditions this FLUENT standard model was applicable. This global Froude number can be used as the parameter to predict under which conditions the buoyancy effect will be dominant and lower heat transfer rates will occur.