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Penfield and Enos: Outage planning in the COVID-19 era
Energy Harbor’s Beaver Valley plant, located about 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pa., was one of many nuclear sites preparing for a scheduled outage as the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March. The baseline objective of any planned outage—to complete refueling on time and get back to producing power—was complicated by the need to prevent the transmission of COVID-19.
While over 200 of the plant’s 850 staff members worked from home to support the outage, about 800 contractors were brought in for jobs that could only be done on-site. Nuclear News Staff Writer Susan Gallier talked with Beaver Valley Site Vice President Rod Penfield and General Plant Manager Matt Enos about the planning and communication required.
Beaver Valley can look forward to several more outages in the future, now that plans to shut down the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, each rated at about 960 MWe, were reversed in March. “The deactivation announcement happened in the middle of all our planning,” Enos said. “It’s a shame we haven’t had a chance to get together as a large group and celebrate that yet.”
While the focus remains on safe pandemic operations, the site now has two causes for celebration: an outage success and a long future ahead.
Kwang-Il Ahn, Joon-Eon Yang
Nuclear Technology | Volume 154 | Number 2 | May 2006 | Pages 155-169
Technical Paper | Reactor Safety | dx.doi.org/10.13182/NT06-A3725
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
This paper provides a formal approach for integrating systematically the decoupled levels 1 and 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models that are developed sequentially and differently in nature into a single PSA model for risk-informed applications (RIAs), with which the change of the level 1 events can be directly reflected in the level 2 model, and thus, the plant is able to evaluate easily the risk associated with important operational issues at the system and component levels. Its fundamental concept is the direct propagation of the level 1 core damage sequence cut sets into the level 2 model so that they are directly linked to the level 2 risk metrics [such as large early release frequency (LERF) and large late release frequency] as well as the level 2 accident sequences. Practical implementation of this approach is achieved through a sequential integration of matrix functions that would be made at successive stages for the level 2 risk calculation. Then, the final result of the integration process is given as a type of Boolean function for the level 1 core damage sequences (or cut sets) solution of each plant damage state (PDS) and PDS solution of the level 2 containment event tree sequences and the release frequencies. The plant-specific application has shown that while the present approach gives a well-formulated single operational model for RIAs, there is no essential difference with results obtained from the conventional level 2 PSA approach that directly uses the numerical results of the level 1 core damage sequences to obtain the level 2 risk metrics.