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Penfield and Enos: Outage planning in the COVID-19 era
Energy Harbor’s Beaver Valley plant, located about 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pa., was one of many nuclear sites preparing for a scheduled outage as the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March. The baseline objective of any planned outage—to complete refueling on time and get back to producing power—was complicated by the need to prevent the transmission of COVID-19.
While over 200 of the plant’s 850 staff members worked from home to support the outage, about 800 contractors were brought in for jobs that could only be done on-site. Nuclear News Staff Writer Susan Gallier talked with Beaver Valley Site Vice President Rod Penfield and General Plant Manager Matt Enos about the planning and communication required.
Beaver Valley can look forward to several more outages in the future, now that plans to shut down the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, each rated at about 960 MWe, were reversed in March. “The deactivation announcement happened in the middle of all our planning,” Enos said. “It’s a shame we haven’t had a chance to get together as a large group and celebrate that yet.”
While the focus remains on safe pandemic operations, the site now has two causes for celebration: an outage success and a long future ahead.
Yong H. Kim, Sung J. Kim, Kune Y. Suh, Joy L. Rempe, F. Bill Cheung, Sang B. Kim
Nuclear Technology | Volume 154 | Number 1 | April 2006 | Pages 13-40
Technical Paper | Thermal Hydraulics | dx.doi.org/10.13182/NT06-A3715
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
This paper addresses the pool boiling critical heat flux (CHF) phenomena in one-dimensional inclined rectangular channels by changing the orientation of a copper test heater assembly. In a pool of saturated water at atmospheric pressure, an account is taken of the gap sizes of 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm and the surface orientation angles from the downward-facing position (180 deg) to the vertical position (90 deg). Tests are conducted on the basis of the visualization of boiling phenomena utilizing a high-speed digital camera. In addition, an engineering correlation relating to the CHF near the vertical position is developed anchored in the experimental results. It is observed that the CHF generally decreases as the surface inclination angle increases and as the gap size decreases. In the downward-facing position (180 deg), on the other hand, the vapor escape and liquid refill are accelerated by the squeezing gap so that the CHF tends to increase as the gap size decreases. It is also found that there exists a transition angle, around which the CHF changes with a rapid slope on account of the CHF triggering mechanism differing with the inclination angle.