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Fusion energy radwaste management considerations
The question of what to do with the radioactive waste has been raised frequently for both fission and fusion. In the 1970s, fusion adopted the land-based disposal option, primarily based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s decision to regulate all radioactive wastes as only a disposal issue, following the fission guidelines. In the early 2000s, members of the Advanced Research Innovation and Evaluation Study (ARIES) national team became increasingly aware of the high amount of mildly radioactive materials that 1-GWe fusion power plants will generate, compared with the current line of fission reactors. The main concern is that such a sizable inventory of mostly tritiated radioactive materials would tend to rapidly fill U.S. repositories—a serious issue that was overlooked in early fusion studies1 that could influence the public acceptability of fusion energy and will certainly become more significant in the immediate future if left unaddressed, as fusion moves toward commercialization.
T. Goorley, M. James, T. Booth, F. Brown, J. Bull, L. J. Cox, J. Durkee, J. Elson, M. Fensin, R. A. Forster, J. Hendricks, H. G. Hughes, R. Johns, B. Kiedrowski, R. Martz, S. Mashnik, G. McKinney, D. Pelowitz, R. Prael, J. Sweezy, L. Waters, T. Wilcox, T. Zukaitis
Nuclear Technology | Volume 180 | Number 3 | December 2012 | Pages 298-315
Technical Paper | Special Issue on the Initial Release of MCNP6 / Radiation Transport and Protection | doi.org/10.13182/NT11-135
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of those two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of five years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3), and Decision Applications Division, Radiation Transport and Applications Team (D-5), respectively, have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. While maintenance and bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 1.60 and MCNPX 2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities only will be developed and released in MCNP6. In fact, the initial release of MCNP6 contains 16 new features not previously found in either code. These new features include the abilities to import unstructured mesh geometries from the finite element code Abaqus, to transport photons down to 1.0 eV, to transport electrons down to 10.0 eV, to model complete atomic relaxation emissions, and to generate or read mesh geometries for use with the LANL discrete ordinates code Partisn. The first release of MCNP6, MCNP6 Beta 2, is now available through the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center, and the first production release is expected in calendar year 2012. High confidence in the MCNP6 code is based on its performance with the verification and validation test suites, comparisons to its predecessor codes, the regression test suite, its code development process, and the underlying high-quality nuclear and atomic databases.