The heat transfer characteristic of supercritical water is one of the crucial issues in SuperCritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWRs). The efficiency and safety of the SCWR system are largely dependent on the local heat transfer performance. This paper establishes the numerical model for supercritical water in a long vertical circular loop (inside diameter = 10 mm) and analyzes the flow and heat transfer mechanism during the transition process from subcritical to supercritical states under various heat fluxes (uniform and nonuniform). The results reveal that the difference in thermophysical properties between the boundary layer and the core region is the main reason for the heat transfer behavior, especially during the transition from subcritical to supercritical and liquidlike to gaslike. The flow structure on the buffer layer is a dominating factor for heat transfer deterioration. The cases under variable nonuniform heat fluxes have a higher heat transfer coefficient compared with uniform heat fluxes. But, this will cause large changes of the parameter locally. The dominating factors of heat transfer deterioration under these conditions are also identified.