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Finland in Front: The World’s Likely First Spent Fuel Repository Moves Toward Licensing
The year 2024 is shaping up to be a historic one for Posiva, the waste management organization owned by Finland’s two nuclear power plant utilities, Fortum and Teollisuuden Voima. The company is looking to receive regulatory approval of its operating license for the Onkalo deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste by the end of the year.
Xuelong Fu, Jie Tao, Dunwen Zuo
Nuclear Science and Engineering | Volume 194 | Number 1 | January 2020 | Pages 69-83
Technical Paper | doi.org/10.1080/00295639.2019.1654328
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
B4C/CF/PI/AA6061 hybrid composite laminates (BCPAs) with different configurations were fabricated using a hot molding process and then were irradiated by a 60Co gamma ray with various doses (250, 500, 750, and 1000 kGy) under ambient conditions. The effects of gamma irradiation on the morphological, physical, and thermal properties of the BCPAs were evaluated correspondingly. It was shown that the specimens maintained good interfacial adhesion even after gamma irradiation up to 1000 kGy and that no obvious delamination, swelling, and surface irradiation damage could be observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the BCPAs after gamma irradiation indicated no obvious discrepancy when compared with that of nonirradiated specimens. The specimens still maintained good thermal stability with the experimental temperature up to 400°C. When the specimens were gamma irradiated with the dose of 750 kGy, the thermal stability of the BCPAs was optimal. Polyimide resin under gamma irradiation was inclined to form free radicals close to each other and underwent radiation decomposition, a chain scission and cross-linking reaction, and a secondary cross-linking reaction. By analyzing the C-C bond, C-O bond, and C = O bond in the C1s spectrum, the relative intensity of the C = O bond decreased with the irradiation dose; moreover, gamma irradiation caused the decomposition of a certain amount of the oxygen functional group C = O.