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The division was organized to promote the advancement of knowledge of the use of particle accelerator technologies for nuclear and other applications. It focuses on production of neutrons and other particles, utilization of these particles for scientific or industrial purposes, such as the production or destruction of radionuclides significant to energy, medicine, defense or other endeavors, as well as imaging and diagnostics.
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The blossoming of cooperation between the U.S. and Canada
The United States and Canadian nuclear industries used to be an example of how two independent teams of engineers facing an identical problem—making electricity from uranium—could come up with completely different answers. In the 1950s, Canada began designing a reactor with tubes, heavy water, and natural uranium, while in the U.S. it was big pots of light water and enriched uranium.
But 80 years later, there is a remarkable convergence. The North American push for a new generation of nuclear reactors, mostly small modular reactors (SMRs), is becoming binational, with U.S. and Canadian companies seeking markets and regulatory certification on both sides of the border and in many cases sourcing key components in the other country.
Zoltán Perkó, Danny Lathouwers, Jan Leen Kloosterman, Tim H. J. J. van der Hagen
Nuclear Science and Engineering | Volume 180 | Number 3 | July 2015 | Pages 345-377
Technical Note | doi.org/10.13182/NSE14-17
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The nuclear community relies heavily on computer codes both in research and in the operation of installations. The results of such computations are useful only if they are augmented with sensitivity and uncertainty studies. This technical note presents some theoretical considerations regarding traditional first-order sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification involving constrained quantities. The focus is on linear constraints, which are often encountered in reactor physics problems due to energy and angle distributions, or the correlation between the isotopic abundances of elements.
A consistent theory is given for the derivation and interpretation of constrained first-order sensitivity coefficients; covariance matrix normalization procedures; their interrelation; and the treatment of constrained inputs with polynomial chaos expansion, which was the main motivation of this research. It is shown that if the covariance matrix violates the “generic zero column and row sum” condition, normalizing it is equivalent to constraining the sensitivities, but since both can be done in many ways, different sensitivity coefficients and uncertainties can be derived. This makes results ambiguous, underlining the need for proper covariance data. Furthermore, it is highlighted that certain constraining procedures can result in biased or unphysical uncertainty estimates. To confirm our conclusions, we demonstrate the presented theory on three analytical and two numerical examples including fission spectrum, isotopic distribution, and power distribution-related uncertainties, as well as the correlation between mass, volume, and density.