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Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
T. Kawasaki, Y. Manabe, K. Katayama, T. Takeishi, M. Nishikawa
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 48 | Number 1 | July-August 2005 | Pages 581-584
Technical Paper | Tritium Science and Technology - Materials Interaction and Permeation | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST05-A992
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Tungsten is a candidate material for plasma facing components for a fusion reactor. Although many studies on hydrogen behavior in tungsten have been carried out, there is insufficient database for a tungsten re-deposition layer. We have made a tungsten re-deposition layer by a sputtering method using a hydrogen and deuterium RF plasma and have investigated hydrogen retention in the layer and the distribution of the layer in the vacuum chamber. The amount of deposited tungsten increased 2.4 times with varying RF power from 100 W to 250 W. It was found from the SEM observation on the cross section that the formed layer has a columnar structure. At high energy (RF power: 250W), a lot of blisters were observed on the surface. The ratio of hydrogen atoms to tungsten atoms (H/W) in the layer was observed to be 0.1 ~ 0.4 with varying RF power. These values of hydrogen retention were much larger than that for absorption into tungsten. Tritium inventory in a D-T fusion reactor may become larger than expected by the formation of tungsten redeposition layer.