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Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
K. Sugiyama, T. Tanabe, N. Bekris, M. Glugla, J. P. Coad
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 48 | Number 1 | July-August 2005 | Pages 573-576
Technical Paper | Tritium Science and Technology - Materials Interaction and Permeation | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST05-A990
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Tritium surface distributions on the plasma-facing surface and four sides of JET Mk IIA divertor tiles employed in the D-T operation phase of JET were measured by Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). Tritium distribution on the plasma-facing surface was consistent with carbon deposition profiles and asymmetric in both poloidal and toroidal directions. The toroidal asymmetry was attributed to the alignment of the tiles preventing direct impact of flux lines to tile edges. Accordingly, no significant carbon deposition or tritium accumulation was observed on two sides facing the toroidal direction. As already reported, heavy codeposition retaining high levels of tritium was observed on the plasma-shadow area of the horizontal target tile surface and the bottom side of the vertical target tile of the inner divertor region where it was kept relatively cool by water coolant. In addition, TIPT has clearly distinguished at least two different carbon deposition layers with different tritium retention in poloidal direction, showing that the poloidal asymmetry on the horizontal target tiles is due to the different carbon deposition properties in the poloidal direction. All the results suggest that tritium retention in the divertor area, which was determined by the carbon/hydrocarbon distribution, correlates closely with divertor geometry and surface temperature.