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Fusion Science and Technology
Delay, cost increase announced for U.K. nuclear project
Perspex screens and reduced seating capacity in the Hinkley Point canteens help protect the workforce during breaks, EDF Energy said. Photo: EDF Energy
The unfortunate effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on nuclear new-build projects haven’t stopped with Vogtle: EDF Energy this morning reported that the expected startup date for Unit 1 at its Hinkley Point C site is being pushed from late 2025 to June 2026.
In addition, the project’s completion costs are now estimated to be in the range of £22 billion to £23 billion (about $30.2 billion to $31.5 billion), some £500 million (about $686 million) more than the 2019 estimate, EDF said, adding the caveat that these revisions assume an ability to begin a return to normal site conditions by the second quarter of 2021.
M. A. Shapiro, E. J. Kowalski, J. R. Sirigiri, D. S. Tax, R. J. Temkin, T. S. Bigelow, J. B. Caughman, D. A. Rasmussen
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 57 | Number 3 | April 2010 | Pages 196-207
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST10-A9467
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The ITER electron cyclotron heating (ECH) transmission lines (TLs) are 63.5-mm-diam corrugated waveguides that will each carry 1 MW of power at 170 GHz. The TL is defined here as the corrugated waveguide system connecting the gyrotron mirror optics unit (MOU) to the entrance of the ECH launcher and includes miter bends and other corrugated waveguide components. The losses on the ITER TL have been calculated for four possible cases corresponding to having HE11 mode purity at the input of the TL of 100, 97, 90, and 80%. The losses due to coupling, ohmic, and mode conversion loss are evaluated in detail using a numerical code and analytical approaches. Estimates of the calorimetric loss on the line show that the output power is reduced by about 5, ±1% because of ohmic loss in each of the four cases. Estimates of the mode conversion loss show that the fraction of output power in the HE11 mode is [approximately]3% smaller than the fraction of input power in the HE11 mode. High output mode purity therefore can be achieved only with significantly higher input mode purity. Combining both ohmic and mode conversion loss, the efficiency of the TL from the gyrotron MOU to the ECH launcher can be roughly estimated in theory as 92% times the fraction of input power in the HE11 mode.