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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
Hugo E. Ferrari, Ricardo Farengo
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 56 | Number 4 | November 2009 | Pages 1512-1520
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST09-A9254
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
We study the interaction of fusion-born particles and neutral beams (NBs) with field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The power deposited and the current generated are calculated for FRC reactors operating with the D-T and D-3He fusion reactions. In the beam studies we specify the beam energy and current, the injection point, and the impact parameter and include an ionization package to determine the position and velocity of the beam particles when they become ionized. In the case of fusion-born particles, we consider a large number of isotropic particle sources distributed inside the FRC. The plasma equilibria are obtained by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation with a pressure that contains linear and quadratic terms in the flux function. A Monte Carlo code that includes particle drag and diffusion is then employed to follow the exact trajectories of the fusion or beam particles and calculate the resulting current and deposited power. The effect of a rotating magnetic field and a toroidal field on the current and deposited power is also studied. In D-T reactors the current generated by the alpha particles is small, but the deposited power fraction is large, and NBs can produce significant currents with reasonable input powers. In D-3He reactors the fusion protons can produce large currents, but the deposited power fraction and the NB current drive efficiencies are low. A small toroidal field, compatible with high FRCs, reduces the deposited power fraction and the current.