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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Fukiushima Daiichi: 10 years on
The Fukushima Daiichi site before the accident. All images are provided courtesy of TEPCO unless noted otherwise.
It was a rather normal day back on March 11, 2011, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant before 2:45 p.m. That was the time when the Great Tohoku Earthquake struck, followed by a massive tsunami that caused three reactor meltdowns and forever changed the nuclear power industry in Japan and worldwide. Now, 10 years later, much has been learned and done to improve nuclear safety, and despite many challenges, significant progress is being made to decontaminate and defuel the extensively damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor site. This is a summary of what happened, progress to date, current situation, and the outlook for the future there.
G. Giruzzi, C. Bourdelle, G. T. Hoang, F. Imbeaux, X. Litaudon, P. Maget, Y. Peysson
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 56 | Number 3 | October 2009 | Pages 1381-1416
Technical Papers | Tore Supra Special Issue | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST09-A9184
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Performing high-power long-duration discharges on Tore Supra has allowed us to investigate new physics at evanescent loop voltage in the situation where the current diffusion has fully taken place. Discharges with dominant noninductive current have been realized for many years, in a variety of configurations and plasma scenarios. They have allowed in-depth investigation on a number of physical phenomena governing the plasma behavior whenever the ohmic field is absent or negligible. The main results obtained in this area of research are summarized in this paper. They include, e.g., significant advances in the fast electron physics; the discovery of a new improved confinement regime (lower hybrid enhanced performance regime); the discovery of a new tokamak plasma regime with nonlinear temperature oscillations (O-regime); specific magnetohydrodynamic regimes associated with reversed safety factor profiles; investigation of the anomalous particle transport, obtained in vanishing loop voltage discharges; and the first experimental demonstration of synergy effects between electron cyclotron and lower hybrid current drive in a steady-state plasma.