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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
China on course to lead in nuclear by 2030, says IEA
China will have the world's largest nuclear power fleet within a decade, an International Energy Agency official noted during a session at the High-Level Workshop on Nuclear Power in Clean Energy Transitions, World Nuclear News reported on March 3.
The workshop was held jointly by the IEA and the International Atomic Energy Agency.
The IEA official, Brent Wanner, head of Power Sector Modelling & Analysis for the agency's World Energy Outlook publication, said that as nuclear fleets in the United States, Canada, and Japan reach their original design lifetimes, decisions will have to be made about what will happen after that. Absent license renewals, the contribution of nuclear power could decline substantially in those countries while China’s reactor building program will boost it into the first position.
B. Pégourié, Tore Supra Team
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 56 | Number 3 | October 2009 | Pages 1334-1352
Technical Papers | Tore Supra Special Issue | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST09-A9181
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Fuel retention in carbon plasma-facing components (PFCs) is such a major concern for next-step operation that it could prevent the use of this material in the D-T phase of ITER. Because of its complete set of actively cooled PFCs, Tore Supra offers a unique opportunity to study this phenomenon in conditions where the plasma exposure time is much longer than the thermal equilibration time of the PFCs. In addition to the main characteristics of permanent retention measured during long-discharge operation, this paper discusses the different mechanisms possibly at work in the continuous increase of the in-vessel inventory and describes the morphology and physical properties of the deposits found at several locations in the vacuum chamber. The main results are (1) that D retention mainly depends on the lower hybrid power coupled to the plasma and, to a lesser extent, on the edge temperature and fueling method, (2) that permanent D retention is mainly due to codeposition, and (3) that the hydrogenated carbon deposits present at the surface of the different PFCs are strongly disorganized graphite carbons when they are exposed to high heat fluxes, whose formation occurs through a heterogeneous growth involving both codeposition of nanoparticles and basic structural unit vapor condensates.