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April 8–10, 2021
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Fusion Science and Technology
House Dems introduce clean energy bill for net zero
Democratic leaders in the House last week introduced the Climate Leadership and Environmental Action for our Nation’s Future Act (the CLEAN Future Act, or H.R. 1512), a nearly 1,000-page piece of climate change–focused legislation establishing, among other things, a federal clean electricity standard that targets a 50 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 2005 levels by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2050.
The bill, a draft version of which was released in January 2020, presents a sweeping set of policy proposals, both sector-specific and economy-wide, to meet those targets. The final version includes a number of significant revisions to bring the legislation into closer alignment with President Biden’s climate policy campaign pledges. For example, the bill’s clean electricity standard would require all retail electricity suppliers to provide 80 percent clean energy to consumers by 2030 and 100 percent by 2035. (A six-page fact sheet detailing the updates is available online.)
D. R. Williamson, Jr., J. P. Blanchard
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 47 | Number 4 | May 2005 | Pages 936-940
Technical Paper | Fusion Energy - Fusion Materials | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST05-A809
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The Z-Accelerator is an intense x-ray source located at Sandia National Laboratory. On a typical shot, 20 MA of current passes through a cylindrical array of wires over tens of nanoseconds. The result is the release of 2 MJ of low-energy x-rays at approximately 200 TW. The wires are mostly vaporized in this time, but some wire fragments remain. We have developed a model for the deformation of these wires as they accelerate towards the center of the device. While the shot is generally over 200 nanoseconds, the model only covers times on the order of 1-4 nanoseconds, as it is a continuum model.The model begins with a 2-D finite element model that determines the forces and magnetic fields the titanium wires experience early in a typical shot. The magnetic field around the wires reaches a maximum of 210 Tesla when the current is a maximum. ANSYS provides a force per unit length that is applied to the wire over time.The forces that are determined in ANSYS are used in a separate computer code that solves the equations of motion for the wires. The code solves the 1-D wave equation with a periodic forcing function, using only the early portions of a cycle to approximate a monotonically increasing load. As the wire is displaced from its initial position, the tension should increase as the length of the wire increases. An incremental model is used to update the tension as the wire is displaced, effectively linearizing an inherently nonlinear problem. Results will be described that show the wires' behavior as a function of the initial tension applied to the wire.