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Fusion Science and Technology
House Dems introduce clean energy bill for net zero
Democratic leaders in the House last week introduced the Climate Leadership and Environmental Action for our Nation’s Future Act (the CLEAN Future Act, or H.R. 1512), a nearly 1,000-page piece of climate change–focused legislation establishing, among other things, a federal clean electricity standard that targets a 50 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 2005 levels by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2050.
The bill, a draft version of which was released in January 2020, presents a sweeping set of policy proposals, both sector-specific and economy-wide, to meet those targets. The final version includes a number of significant revisions to bring the legislation into closer alignment with President Biden’s climate policy campaign pledges. For example, the bill’s clean electricity standard would require all retail electricity suppliers to provide 80 percent clean energy to consumers by 2030 and 100 percent by 2035. (A six-page fact sheet detailing the updates is available online.)
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 47 | Number 2 | February 2005 | Pages 119-125
Technical Paper | TEXTOR: Plasma-Wall Interactions | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST05-A693
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Proper wall conditioning has been a major element in the development of fusion energy on the way to achieve high fusion plasma performance. Various of these techniques have been pioneered in the TEXTOR tokamak and later applied successfully in various devices worldwide. The main issues are to clean the surface from surface-bounded impurities, to remove hydrogen, and to coat the entire wall surface with a thin film of a proper first-wall material. The main benefits of wall conditioning are to control the oxygen impurity content of the plasma and to offer a suitable first-wall material. Entire coating of the first wall has allowed one to control to some extent the recycling hydrogenic fluxes but in particular to study the complex coupling between the choice of wall materials and the behavior of the plasma edge. This paper presents a review of the different wall-conditioning methods used in TEXTOR and their effects on the plasma behavior. Also, new wall-conditioning concepts, compatible with steady-state magnetic fields, are outlined briefly.