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Fusion Science and Technology
House Dems introduce clean energy bill for net zero
Democratic leaders in the House last week introduced the Climate Leadership and Environmental Action for our Nation’s Future Act (the CLEAN Future Act, or H.R. 1512), a nearly 1,000-page piece of climate change–focused legislation establishing, among other things, a federal clean electricity standard that targets a 50 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 2005 levels by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2050.
The bill, a draft version of which was released in January 2020, presents a sweeping set of policy proposals, both sector-specific and economy-wide, to meet those targets. The final version includes a number of significant revisions to bring the legislation into closer alignment with President Biden’s climate policy campaign pledges. For example, the bill’s clean electricity standard would require all retail electricity suppliers to provide 80 percent clean energy to consumers by 2030 and 100 percent by 2035. (A six-page fact sheet detailing the updates is available online.)
E. P. Kruglyakov, G. I. Dimov, A. A. Ivanov, V. S. Koidan
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 47 | Number 1 | January 2005 | Pages 1-8
Technical Paper | Open Magnetic Systems for Plasma Confinement | dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST05-A600
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
At present, in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics there is in operation the most complete set of modern mirror machines based on different principles of plasma confinement. This set includes the multi-mirror system GOL-3 for confinement of dense plasma heated by relativistic electron beam, the gas dynamic trap (GDT) for confinement of collisional plasma and anisotropic fast ions, and the ambipolar trap AMBAL-M.Mirrors have a number of advantages in comparison with the closed magnetic systems like tokamak, stellarator, etc. The most important are the following. The effects of disruptions are not appeared in mirrors. There are no divertor problems in them. Plasma pressure in a mirror device can be comparable with magnetic field pressure. As to the multi-mirror system, in this case, the value can be even significantly higher than unity (the so called <<wall confinement>>). At last, mirrors are convenient for direct conversion of energy of charged particles leaving out the ends. This circumstance can turn out to be especially important in future <<low neutron>> schemes of fusion reactors.In principle, mirrors are very attractive from the engineering point of view, if the plasma confined in axisymmetric magnetic systems would be MHD stable. At present, the problem of MHD stability has already been solved for all axisymmetric traps designed in Novosibirsk. At least, the value [approximately or equal to] 0.4 was obtained in these traps without any indications of macroscopic instability development.Some important results were obtained recently in the GOL-3 experiments. A specific mechanism of reduction of longitudinal electron thermal conductivity was detected. Recently, the magnetic system of the GOL-3 device was reconstructed into multi-mirror configuration. In this configuration, a new mechanism of fast ion heating was observed. As a result, the ion temperature was increased from a few eV up to 1 keV and the confinement time significantly increased (up to 1ms). These results were obtained for plasma density of 1021m-3.The experiments on the GDT device are directed to the solution of the problem of creation of a 14 MeV high power neutron source. At present, new powerful neutral beam injectors for this device are under construction. After installing these neutral beams at GDT, the electron temperature of plasma should increase up to 300 eV. It means that calculated neutron flux for the case of D-T reaction will be about 0.5 MW/m2. If this value will be obtained, it will be immediately possible to begin the design of final stage of high power neutron source.In the paper, the status of all mirror traps in Novosibirsk is presented and description of the main experiments is given.