This paper proposes a Langmuir probe–based diagnostics for plasma parameters inside gridded cathodes at high bias potentials in inertial electrostatic confinement devices. As the first step for the proof of concept, floating potential profiles were measured in deuterium and helium plasmas in a glow-discharge mode. The measurements with fusion-relevant cathode voltages up to 55 kV were carried out successfully. The results revealed that the positive potential buildup at the center ranges from 5% to 8% of the applied bias voltage to the gridded cathode, which is found to be much smaller than those in earlier works under cathode voltages lower than 5 kV. It was also shown that the floating potential profile is different significantly between deuterium and helium discharge plasmas.