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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Finding fusion’s place
Fusion energy is attracting significant interest from governments and private capital markets. The deployment of fusion energy on a timeline that will affect climate change and offer another tool for energy security will require support from stakeholders, regulators, and policymakers around the world. Without broad support, fusion may fail to reach its potential as a “game-changing” technology to make a meaningful difference in addressing the twin challenges of climate change and geopolitical energy security.
The process of developing the necessary policy and regulatory support is already underway around the world. Leaders in the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union, China, and elsewhere are engaging with the key issues and will lead the way in setting the foundation for a global fusion industry.
Georgeta Radulescu, Katherine E. Royston, Stephen C. Wilson, Walter Van Hove, David E. Williamson, Seokho H. Kim
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 75 | Number 6 | August 2019 | Pages 452-457
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2019.1589205
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
Heat generated in the ITER fusion reactor is deposited in the tokamak vacuum vessel, in-vessel components, and in the components of the neutral beam injector during plasma operations and during subsequent decay of activation products. This heat is managed by the tokamak cooling water system (TCWS). The stainless steel material in the integrated loop of blanket edge-localized mode vertical stabilization coils and divertor (IBED) components (e.g., piping, heat exchangers (HXs), and pumps) contains activation sources because of its exposure primarily to neutron radiation from the decay of 17N, which is a short-lived radionuclide produced by neutron capture reactions with oxygen nuclei in the IBED primary heat transfer system (PHTS) cooling water during plasma operations. A detailed geometry model of the IBED stainless steel components and neutron radiation sources is required for an accurate assessment of the gamma activation sources on level 3 of the tokamak building. In the baseline design, each of the eight IBED PHTS cooling trains has two shell-and-tube heat exchangers (HXs) connected in series. Because these HXs are very large and contain a large amount of radioactive water, the possibility of using compact HXs of the welded shell-and-plate type is under investigation. This paper presents two Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) TCWS geometry models, one model for each HX type, along with the associated piping. These models were obtained by automatic geometry conversion from TCWS computer-aided design models. The TCWS geometry models and neutron source definitions were incorporated into a baseline MCNP model of the Tokamak Complex.