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Operations & Power
Members focus on the dissemination of knowledge and information in the area of power reactors with particular application to the production of electric power and process heat. The division sponsors meetings on the coverage of applied nuclear science and engineering as related to power plants, non-power reactors, and other nuclear facilities. It encourages and assists with the dissemination of knowledge pertinent to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear facilities through professional staff development, information exchange, and supporting the generation of viable solutions to current issues.
2021 ANS Winter Meeting and Technology Expo
November 30–December 3, 2021
Washington, DC|Washington Hilton
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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Neutron noise monitoring during plant operation expedites flexure replacement at Salem-1
The nuclear industry has historically relied on intermittent ultrasonic test and visual inspections of pressurized water reactor components to identify and manage degradation. While this reactive approach has proven to be effective, imagine a scenario in which the degradation could propagate throughout the reactor internals, making a more proactive measure necessary to avoid a major enterprise risk to the plant. Could a utility identify the onset of degradation within the reactor internals during plant operation? If so, could a repair be developed prior to the next refueling outage to prevent additional, cascading degradation? That is exactly the situation that Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG) and Westinghouse engineers were able to navigate over the course of the 2019–2020 operating cycle at Salem Unit 1, resulting in a tremendous success for the plant and a historic landmark in the nuclear industry, while earning the team a 2021 Nuclear Energy Institute Top Innovative Practice (TIP) award.
Aljaž Čufar, Paola Batistoni, Sean Conroy, Zamir Ghani, Igor Lengar, Sergey Popovichev, Brian Syme, Žiga Štancar, Luka Snoj, JET Contributors
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 74 | Number 4 | November 2018 | Pages 370-386
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2018.1475163
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The fusion power output of fusion plasmas is measured using the neutron yield detectors due to its linear relation to the fusion yield. Absolutely calibrated neutron yield detectors are thus a crucial part of the plasma diagnostics system and the absolute accuracy of their calibration must be ensured.
The transition of the Joint European Torus’s (JET’s) first wall material from carbon (C) wall to ITER-like (Be/W/C) first wall was a significant change in the structure of the machine and recalibration of the main neutron yield detectors was needed to maintain the required measurement uncertainty of less than ±10%. The neutron yield detectors were thus recalibrated through two in situ calibrations to deuterium-deuterium neutrons in 2013 and deuterium-tritium neutrons in 2017 using 252Cf spontaneous fission source and a compact neutron generator, respectively.
We describe the extensive neutronics calculations performed in support of these latest calibration experiments. These analyses were performed using Monte Carlo simulations to better understand the calibration procedure, optimize the experiments, ensure personnel safety, and quantify the effects of the uncharacteristic circumstances during calibration experiments. This paper focuses on assessments of the effects of the uncharacteristic circumstances, e.g., the presence of the remote handling system in the machine due to its use in neutron source delivery, difference in the neutron emission spectrum, and differences in the neutron source shape. Lessons learned, findings, and relevance for calibrations of future large tokamaks are discussed.