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November 30–December 3, 2021
Washington, DC|Washington Hilton
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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
Neutron noise monitoring during plant operation expedites flexure replacement at Salem-1
The nuclear industry has historically relied on intermittent ultrasonic test and visual inspections of pressurized water reactor components to identify and manage degradation. While this reactive approach has proven to be effective, imagine a scenario in which the degradation could propagate throughout the reactor internals, making a more proactive measure necessary to avoid a major enterprise risk to the plant. Could a utility identify the onset of degradation within the reactor internals during plant operation? If so, could a repair be developed prior to the next refueling outage to prevent additional, cascading degradation? That is exactly the situation that Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG) and Westinghouse engineers were able to navigate over the course of the 2019–2020 operating cycle at Salem Unit 1, resulting in a tremendous success for the plant and a historic landmark in the nuclear industry, while earning the team a 2021 Nuclear Energy Institute Top Innovative Practice (TIP) award.
M. D. Nornberg, D. J. Den Hartog, L. M. Reusch
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 74 | Number 1 | July-August 2018 | Pages 144-153
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2017.1387008
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
We have created a forward model for charge-exchange impurity density measurements that incorporates neutral beam attenuation measurements self-consistently for the purpose of determining the ion-effective charge Zeff. The model is constructed within an integrated data analysis framework to include a self-consistent calculation of neutral beam attenuation due to multiple impurity species into the measurement of a single impurity density. The model includes measurements of the beam Doppler-shift spectrum and shine-through particle flux to determine the neutral beam particle density which is attenuated by ion collisions. Synthetic data are generated from the diagnostic forward model using statistical and calibration uncertainties. These “noisy” data are used in the analysis to evaluate how accurately Zeff is determined. Methods of experimental design are employed to calculate the information gained from different diagnostic combinations. The analysis shows that while attenuation measurements alone do not provide a unique impurity density measurement in the case of a multispecies inhomogeneous plasma, they do provide an effective measurement of the Zeff profile and place constraints on the impurity density profiles.