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Nuclear Science and Engineering
Fusion Science and Technology
The Ubiquity of PFAS: An Emerging Issue in Decommissioning
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), an anthropogenic class of several thousand chemicals made for use in products such as nonstick cookware, water-, grease-, and stain-resistant materials, surfactants, and fire suppression foams , are emerging as a complicating factor in nuclear decommissioning. These chemicals, which have been manufactured globally, including in the United States, have gained regulatory and public attention due to their persistence and ubiquity in the environment, ability to be detected at low parts-per-trillion levels, and health-based standards set at levels hundreds to thousands of times lower than more classic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Lee C. Cadwallader
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 72 | Number 3 | October 2017 | Pages 461-468
Technical Note | doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2017.1330639
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
As fusion researchers look toward the future, there have been discussions on what the plant operation goals should be for a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO). The U.S. Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) in 2009 stated that power producers (the companies owning power plants) could not expect an ultimate fusion power plant availability of 80% or more if a DEMO reactor cannot demonstrate a 50% or higher availability. The ReNeW panel also stated that achieving 50% availability with a DEMO plant would be a huge accomplishment. Other recent DEMO design studies have given goals for plant availability as well. This technical note presents historical plant availability values of new technology fission power plants to compare fission achievements with the suggested goals for fusion DEMO plant designs. Demonstration fission plants that met or exceeded 40% average annual availability were generally considered to be successful. These data help to support the goal values that have been put forward in various studies.