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Fusion Science and Technology
Penfield and Enos: Outage planning in the COVID-19 era
Energy Harbor’s Beaver Valley plant, located about 34 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pa., was one of many nuclear sites preparing for a scheduled outage as the coronavirus pandemic intensified in March. The baseline objective of any planned outage—to complete refueling on time and get back to producing power—was complicated by the need to prevent the transmission of COVID-19.
While over 200 of the plant’s 850 staff members worked from home to support the outage, about 800 contractors were brought in for jobs that could only be done on-site. Nuclear News Staff Writer Susan Gallier talked with Beaver Valley Site Vice President Rod Penfield and General Plant Manager Matt Enos about the planning and communication required.
Beaver Valley can look forward to several more outages in the future, now that plans to shut down the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, each rated at about 960 MWe, were reversed in March. “The deactivation announcement happened in the middle of all our planning,” Enos said. “It’s a shame we haven’t had a chance to get together as a large group and celebrate that yet.”
While the focus remains on safe pandemic operations, the site now has two causes for celebration: an outage success and a long future ahead.
Hongjie Zhang, Alice Ying, Mohamed Abdou, Masashi Shimada, Bob Pawelko, Seungyon Cho
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 72 | Number 3 | October 2017 | Pages 416-425
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2017.1333826
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
A mathematical model for permeation of multi-components (H2, T2, HT) through a RAFM (Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic) membrane was described based on kinetic theory. Experimental conditions of tritium permeation for ARAA (Advanced Reduced Activation Alloy) material performed at INL were recreated in simulations for model validation. Both numerical simulations and experimental data indicated that the presence of hydrogen reduces tritium permeation rate significantly in low tritium partial pressure with 1000 ppm (0.1%) hydrogen-helium gas mixture at 1atm. Experimental behavior of tritium permeation flux dependence on tritium isotope partial pressure confirmed the kinetic theory. i.e., it still follows diffusion-controlled, square root dependence, with T2 partial pressures and a linear dependence HT pressure even though it is in a diffusion-controlled regime. In addition, the numerical model was validated with literature data for mono-isotope permeation through oxidized and clean MANET II (MArtensitic for NET) samples under surface-controlled and diffusion-controlled regimes. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data, which indicated that the mono permeation rate through the oxidized sample is much lower (~2 orders) than clean sample and the permeation rate is proportional to p1 and p0.5 for oxidized and clean MANET II samples, respectively.