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Fusion Science and Technology
Finding fusion’s place
Fusion energy is attracting significant interest from governments and private capital markets. The deployment of fusion energy on a timeline that will affect climate change and offer another tool for energy security will require support from stakeholders, regulators, and policymakers around the world. Without broad support, fusion may fail to reach its potential as a “game-changing” technology to make a meaningful difference in addressing the twin challenges of climate change and geopolitical energy security.
The process of developing the necessary policy and regulatory support is already underway around the world. Leaders in the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union, China, and elsewhere are engaging with the key issues and will lead the way in setting the foundation for a global fusion industry.
Dennis L. Youchison, Alex M. Melin, Arnold Lumsdaine, Charles R. Schaich, Gregory R. Hanson
Fusion Science and Technology | Volume 72 | Number 3 | October 2017 | Pages 324-330
Technical Paper | dx.doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2017.1333855
Articles are hosted by Taylor and Francis Online.
The electron cyclotron heating system (ECH) on ITER uses 24 evacuated microwave transmission lines carrying up to 1.4 MW of power each at 170 GHz to provide resonance heating of electrons in the ITER plasma and to enable plasma current drive. A critically important component in this system is the microwave switch that allows the microwaves to be directed from the gyrotrons to either dummy loads or between launchers in the upper and equatorial ports of the ITER tokamak while maintaining the vacuum integrity of the transmission lines. A moveable, water-cooled CuCrZr mirror is used to redirect the microwave transmission between two orthogonal waveguides.
In this article we describe the optimized design of the mirror cooling passages produced by computational fluid dynamics analysis using ANSYS CFX with k-ε and k-ω shear stress transport turbulence models, and verify that the design parameters for mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure are adequate for good thermomechanical performance. Non-uniform heating of the mirror face from the incident microwaves induces deflections that should be less than 25 microns to meet the integrated transmission line efficiency specification. In the current 1.4 MW switch design, 0.03 kg/s of 36°C water at 10 bar inlet pressure can remove the 2660 W of ohmic heating in the mirror produced by the elliptical polarization power and maintain the surface temperature below 150°C. The water delta-T is 21°C with a 0.5 bar pressure drop in the mirror. The maximum predicted displacement in the center of the mirror face is less than 25 μm.